Should typing skills or handwriting be emphasized in elementary school?

12 Jan 2016
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12 Jan 2016
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Typing skills should be emphasized in elementary school, instead of focusing on handwriting skills

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computers are becoming more and more common
handwriting is better associated with memory
Typing skills should be emphasized in elementary school, instead of focusing on handwriting skills
Typing can be faster than handwriting, and speed can be important in school and the workplace
As the prevalence of electronic media has increased, more written material takes the form of typed text
This node is typed, instead of being written on a piece of paper
Wong, Linda. Essential Study Skills.
Practicing handwriting is linked to greater reading skills than practicing typing
Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2014?2019
Note: Common Core State Standards mandate teaching handwriting skills before and during grade 1, while not mandating it later
Handwriting in the 21st Century Summary of Research.
Greater letter-recognition skills in children after three weeks handwriting practice versus typing practice
"The influence of writing practice on letter recognition in preschool children."
I'm pretty sure its linked to greater cognitive skills in other ways too.
This however is not prove it should be taught more, at best its one factor.
One reason is in the future speech recognition technology or gesture reading or brain reading technology may replace typing.
Berninger, Virginia. "The Neural Correlates of Handwriting and Its Affect on Reading Acquisition"
Handwriting is associated with greater cognitive activation and development than typing
Handwriting information may lead to greater understanding than typing, as note-taking was found to be more beneficial when handwritten
Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer. "The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard."
Multiple, critical brain regions activated by free-hand writing
Arif, Ahmed. Analysis of Text Entry Performance Metrics.
James, Karen and Laura Engelhardt. The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children.

Typing is becoming more and more of an essential skill as the popularity of computers is shooting up. 

With handwriting, the brain apprehends, comprehends, and remembers the material much better than in typing

https://books.google.com/books?id=yL2iAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA349 "An average rate of writing is 30 words per minute." On page 348, Wong notes that the "average rate of speaking during a lecture is 100-125 words per minute" and that some lecturers may speak much more quickly, increasing the importance of speedy note-taking.

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/ip-ngn-ip-next-generation-network/white_paper_c11-481360.html "Total Internet traffic has experienced dramatic growth in the past two decades. More than 20 years ago, in 1992, global Internet networks carried approximately 100 GB of traffic per day. Ten years later, in 2002, global Internet traffic amounted to 100 gigabytes per second (GBps). In 2014, global Internet traffic reached 16,144 GBps. Table 1 provides a view of the historical benchmarks for total Internet traffic."


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15823243 From the abstract: "After three weeks of learning, we ran two recognition tests, one week apart, to compare the letter recognition performances of the two groups. The results showed that in the older children, the handwriting training gave rise to a better letter recognition than the typing training."

Maybe if a google search substantiates that (I believe I've seen studies showing taking handwritten notes aids retention and understanding in students and maybe even adults), if this plays out then maybe change the top node here to be about cognitive skills or something and another argument or two feeding in from other skills.
To make a serious argument that typing skills should be emphasized, you'd need at least to compare the advantages of faster entry to the drawbacks. And in the future, data entry may rely less anyway on typing. Another Test Edit.
Typing seems likely to be less important in the future, so the relative importance of the benefits of handwriting for comprehension and learning are further augmented.
https://www.hw21summit.com/biographies-and-abstracts#berninger "Results of assessment, instructional, brain, and genetics research explain a) the developmental milestones in grapho-motor skills for finger movements and in orthographic coding skills in the mind???s eye; b) the role of the orthographic loop between the mind???s eye and the serial finger movements of the hand, which receive both somatosensory and visual sensory feedback, in engaging the mind in written expression of ideas; c) the importance of automatic access to and retrieval and production of legible letter forms; d) the contribution of handwriting to establishing serial organization, which is fundamental to other writing skills???spelling and composing; and e) the benefits of teaching for transfer across levels of language close in time to facilitate efficient, temporal coordination of working memory components"

http://pss.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/04/22/0956797614524581.abstract From the abstract: "The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers??? tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning."

http://www.asarif.com/pub/papers/arif_ticsth09.pdf Page 3. Chart. QWERTY full-length keyboard users clock in over 60 words per minute, as opposed to the ~30 words handwritten.
"Preliterate, five-year old children printed, typed, or traced letters and shapes, then were shown images of these stimuli while undergoing functional MRI scanning. A previously documented ???reading circuit??? was recruited during letter perception only after handwriting???not after typing or tracing experience. These findings demonstrate that handwriting is important for the early recruitment in letter processing of brain regions known to underlie successful reading. Handwriting therefore may facilitate reading acquisition in young children."